There are several possible ways the industrial chemicals enter food supplies, including contaminated groundwater and through sewage sludge, which has been spread on crops around the country for decades.

New research presented at a PFAS conference at Northeastern University this week suggests other impacts of the chemicals, including increased hospitalizations of children for infectious diseases; reduced kidney function; and changes in hormone levels at birth and during childhoodstudy done in West Africa on the relation between PFAS levels on the effect of the measles vaccine added to evidence that the chemicals interfere with childhood immunity and weaken the effect of vaccines. Another study from Harvard Medical School’s Department of Population Medicine found that high PFAS levels were associated with a diet high in low-fiber carbohydrates, fish, and high-fat meat.